Publication ethics

The editorial board of the journal of scientific papers "Printing and Publishing", published by Ukrainian Academy of Printing, the state higher educational establishment, adhere to national, international ethical and professional standards in its editorial policy.

The editorial board presents below the set of ethical standards, that persons, submitting the research results in printing and publishing industry, related industries and other fields, must adhere to, in accordance with the scientific papers journal specificity (editors, authors and reviewers).

Working out the standards of publication ethics, the editorial board of journal of the scientific papers "Printing and Publishing" based on the recommendations of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) https://www.elsevier.com/authors/journal-authors/policies-and-ethics, as well as the working experience of foreign and Ukrainian professional communities, scientific organizations, and electoral boards of the editions. Legal basis for ensuring publication ethics is studies and regulations, adopted on the World Forum I on Best Practices for Ensuring Scientific Integrity (Lisbon, 16-19 September, 1997) available at https://wcrif.org/documents/295-2007-242-oecd-global-science-report/filehttps://wcrif.org/documents/292-2007-242-esf-orisciencepolicybriefing30/file,

2nd World Conference on Best Practices for Ensuring Scientific Integrity (Singapore, 22-24 July, 2010), Singapore Statement on Research Integrity, available at https://wcrif.org/documents/333-ss-ukranian/file, https://wcrif.org/documents/327-singapore-statement-a4size/file,

3rd World Conference on Ensuring Scientific Research Integrity (Montreal, 5-8 May, 2013), Montreal Statement on Research Integrity in Cross-Boundary Research Collaborations, available at https://wcrif.org/documents/354-montreal-statement-english/filehttps://wcrif.org/documents/356-iapg-translations-montreal-statment/file,

4th World Conference on Ensuring Scientific Research Integrity (Rio de Janeiro, 31 May – 3 July, 2015), https://wcrif.org/2015-background, https://wcrif.org/wcri2015,

5th World Conference on Ensuring Scientific Research Integrity (Amsterdam, 28-31 May, 2017) https://wcrif.org/documents/42-amsterdam-agenda/file, Hames I. COPE Ethical Guidelines for Peer Reviewers /COPE. March 2013. V. 1. 5 p. Available at: http://publicationethics.org/files/Ethical_guidelines_for_peer_reviewers_0.pdf.

Editors of the journal of the scientific papers "Printing and Publishing", meet international requirements of the editors, worked out on 2nd World Conference on Research Integrity (Singapore, 22-24 July, 2010).

International Standards for Editors *

Kleinert S. & Wager E. (2011). Responsible research publication: international standards for editors. A position statement developed at the 2nd World Conference on Research Integrity, Singapore, July 22–24, 2010. Chapter 51 in: Mayer T. & Steneck N. (eds) Promoting Research Integrity in a Global Environment. Imperial College Press / World Scientific Publishing, Singapore (pp. 317–28). (ISBN 978-981-4340-97-7).

International Standards for Authors *

Wager E. & Kleinert S. (2011). Responsible research publication: international standards for authors. A position statement developed at the 2nd World Conference on Research Integrity, Singapore, July 22–24, 2010. Chapter 50 in: Mayer T. & Steneck N. (eds) Promoting Research Integrity in a Global Environment. Imperial College Press / World Scientific Publishing, Singapore (рр. 309–16). (ISBN 978-981-4340-97-7).

* Both Standards were published by the license of Creative Commons

Any publication that does not correspond to the above mentioned standards is rejected on all editing stages and after publication in particular. Reviewers and the editorial board of the journal of the scientific papers "Printing and publishing" check up all articles on plagiarism, fabrication of results, falsification of data, inappropriate use of people and animals in the researches. An editorial board conducts investigations of any cases of misconduct, in particular violation of academic integrity, plagiarism or duplication of the articles, regardless of whether they are authors, reviewers or editors.

Ethical Responsibilities of Editors

1. An editor must study the manuscripts submitted for publication without delay.

2. A chief editor and editorial board is responsible for acceptance or rejection of the article. All submitted for publication manuscripts are subject to thorough preliminary analysis as to their accordance to the editorial requirements, plagiarism, and are reviewed. An editorial board has the right to reject the article without exercising the external review or turn it back for improvement if necessary. To ensure profound and responsible preliminary analysis of the manuscripts quality submitted for publication, before passing them for external review, the chief editor can call on the members of editorial board and consultants of corresponding scientific field. Manuscripts can also be rejected without reviewing, if a chief editor considers them to be inappropriate to the specificity of the scientific paper journal. An author must improve the article according to the remarks of reviewers and/or editorial board.

3. A chief editor must not admit the submitted manuscript of the article to publication, if he has enough grounds to consider it a plagiarism.

4. Making decision as to publication of the submitted manuscript, a chief editor of the scientific journal relies on data accuracy and significance of the received scientific results.

5. A chief editor and members of editorial board must not have a conflict of interests (relations with authors, companies, research items, etc.) as to the articles submitted to the editorial board of scientific papers journal. A chief editor and other members of editorial board must withdraw themselves during the manuscripts reviewing in case of conflicts of interests. Thus, in such cases, examining the manuscript, it is necessary to involve the deputies of the chief editor and other members of the editorial board to the process of manuscript review.

6. Responsibilities and the rights of the chief editor of the journal must be assigned to his deputy or another member of the editorial board if the chief editor is the author of the submitted manuscript.

7. A chief editor and the editorial board must examine in an unbiased manner all manuscripts submitted for publication, evaluating them only by their scientific content, regardless of authors race, sex, sexual orientation, religious beliefs, ethnic belonging, nationality, origin, social status, political views or their place of work. A chief editor and the editorial board can examine the submitted manuscript of the article in the context and interrelation with other works submitted by the same authors before.

8. An editor-in-chief, members of editorial board, editorial and publishing personnel, must not report information related to content of the article under review to other persons, except the author(s), persons that professionally evaluate the manuscript (appointed and potential reviewers) and, in case of necessity, the publisher.

9. Spreading or quoting of any articles from the journal in the electronic networks (Internet) is allowed, but reference to the primary source is compulsory. 

10. Unpublished information, ideas, results of scientific researches, data received from the submitted manuscripts, must be confidential and mustn’t be used by a chief editor, editorial board, members of editorial, and publishing groups for private purposes, in order to receive personal benefit or transfer it to third parties without the written permission of the author.

11. An author has the right to ask the chief editor and the editorial board not to involve certain reviewers in the manuscript examination. However, an editor may involve one or a few of those reviewers, if he understands that their opinions are important for unbiased review. Such decision can be made, for example, in case, when there are significant contradictions between the manuscript, previous publications, and the works of the potential reviewer.

12. An editor-in-chief, members of the editorial board or publishing and editorial group of the journals, must provide confidentiality of the names and other information that concerns reviewers. If it is necessary, while making a decision about appointing a new reviewer, the last can be told the names of the previous ones.

13. The article, approved for publication, is placed in open access with copyright retaining.

14. In case, if a chief editor or the editorial board found convinced proofs that the main idea or conclusions of the paper are invalid, the chief editor must assist in publication of a corresponding report that indicates the error and, if possible, provides valid information. In such cases, a chief editor and the editorial board cooperate with the authors of the article, and relating organizations, universities, scientific research institutions, and professional organizations as well. This report may be written by a person that detected this error or the author of the article. In such cases, it is necessary to react to this as quickly as possible in order to make necessary corrections, withdraw the article, express disturbance or other relating statements.

Ethical Responsibilities of Authors

An author (or group of authors) are personally responsible for novelty and validity of the results of a scientific research and must adhere to the following principles:

1. Every author of the article manuscript guarantees that the materials submitted to the journal of scientific papers "Printing and Publishing" were written taking into account all ethical norms and standards. Authors state that the article does not contain groundless or illegal statements and does not violate the rights of third parties. A publisher is not legally responsible if there are any claims for indemnifications.

2. An author (authors) of the articles is responsible for the content of the articles and for the publication itself. The editorial board of the journal of scientific papers "Printing and Publishing" is not responsible to the authors and/or third parties, and organizations for possible loss caused by the publication of the article. The editorial board has the right to withdraw the already published article if it turns out that during the process of the article publication somebody's rights or generally accepted norms of scientific ethics were violated. The editorial board informs the author, that submitted the article, about the fact of its withdrawal, the person, that gave recommendation, and organization, where the work was carried out.

3. An author (authors) must guarantee that results of the research, presented in the submitted manuscript, are fully authentic and accurate, and objective meaningfulness of the research is grounded in the results discussion. Unjustified, fabricated, false, made by mistake conclusions and statements are treated as unethical behaviour and are unacceptable. The borrowed parts or statements of other authors must be given with the obligatory indication of the author, original source with accordingly marked reference or indication in the text. Excessive borrowing and plagiarism in any form, including incomplete references, paraphrasing or appropriations of the rights to the results of other researches, is unethical and unacceptable. Articles that are a mixture of materials published by other authors, without personal creative processing and authorial comprehension are rejected by the electoral board.

4. An authentic article must contain the sufficient amount of information, scientific data, references to the accessible information resources, for other specialists to repeat this work. By a certain inquiry, the authors must make necessary arrangements to supply the samples of the authentic materials that are inaccessible in other places, with certain material transfer agreements, that restricts the sphere of the materials usage in order to protect legal interests of the authors.

5. An author (authors) must not submit already published article to another journal. Publication of certain type of the articles, for example, translated articles in more than one journal is, in certain cases, ethical under compliance of certain conditions. Authors and editors of the interested journals must agree to the second publication that obligatory contains the same data and interpretations, as the first published article. Bibliography of the primary work must be presented in the second publication as well.

If some data of manuscript were already published in another article, the authors must refer to their previous work and specify the substantial difference between them.

It is possible to submit the whole manuscript of the article, that will be considered authentic, if the work was described in a short report or a letter. An editor must be informed about this short publication at the moment of submission and it must be quoted in a manuscript.

6. An author (authors) must not submit the manuscript of the article for reviewing, that was sent to another journal and is under the process of reviewing. Non-observance of this principle is considered as an outrageous violation of publication rules, unethical behaviour and gives reasons for rejection of the article from reviewing. The manuscript of the article can be considered authentic, if it is resubmission of the manuscript rejected by the journal or withdrawn by an author.

7. It is necessary to avoid fragmentation about the carried research in publication. A scientist that carries out big research of a system or a group of the related systems must organize a publication in such a way that each article will contain the description of the completed report on every certain aspect of the whole research.

8. Preparing the manuscript of the article for publication, an author must inform an editor about the related author’s manuscripts, submitted or accepted for printing. The copies of these manuscripts must be submitted to the editor, their connections with the manuscript submitted for publication must be specified.

9. A chief editor and editorial board can write a request to get output data from the author (authors) for analysis. Authors must give free access to such data and keep them for a certain time after their publication.

10. An author must quote those publications, that had significant influence on the work importance that was presented, and also those, that can quickly acquaint a reader with more early publications important for understanding of this research. Except for the review articles, it is necessary to minimize quoting of papers irrelevant to this article. An author is obliged to conduct a literary search, to find and quote authentic publications, which describe researches closely connected with the article. It is also necessary to indicate properly the sources of fundamental and critical materials used in this paper unless they were received by the authors themselves. 

Personally received information by means of conversations, correspondence, and discussions with third parties, must not be used without written permission of the representative of this source. Information received while giving confidential services, as, for example, during the analysis of arbitrage manuscripts, materials of trials, reviewing manuscripts or projects submitted for grants, must be treated in the same way. All sources must be open. Even if written or illustrative material created by plenty of people is used, it is necessary to get the permission for it and send it to the editor. All borrowed information, pictures, tables, photos or copied parts of a text must be properly quoted and the list of the used literature must be provided. All borrowed electronic or printed parts that belong to other authors must be quoted and referred to accordingly. Authors must collate references with the quoted works.

11. To provide the correct listing of co-authors. The co-authors of the article must be those persons, who made considerable scientific contribution to its conception, conduct and analysis of experimental researches, and share responsibility for the obtained results. Contribution of other persons to some aspect of the conducted work must be specified in notes or in the "Gratitude" section. Administrative relations connected with this research are not the basis in themselves to determine a certain person as a co-author (but in certain cases it can be appropriate to distinguish a considerable administrative help during the process). Persons who died and meet to the above mentioned criteria must be added to the number of authors, and the date of their death must be indicated in the notes. Fictitious names must not be given as an author or a co-author. An author that submits a manuscript for publication is responsible for indicating all persons that meet the criteria of authorship to the list of co-authors. In the article that was written by a few authors, the one, who gives contact information, documents to the editorial board, and corresponds with editors, undertakes the responsibility for the consent of other authors of the article for its publication in the journal. All authors are publicly responsible for the article content. If an article is multi-field work, co-authors are responsible for each their contribution, sharing collective responsibility for the overall result. It is not allowed to specify persons that were not involved in the research among co-authors.

12. Experimental or theoretical research can sometimes serve as the basis for criticism of another researcher’s work. In such cases the published articles may contain similar criticism. However, the personal criticism cannot be considered appropriate in any case.

13. Any dangerous displays and risks related to the carried studies must be clearly indicated in the manuscript.

14. According to the ethical standards, the author of the manuscript must clearly describe the researches connected with mechanical, physical and chemical processes, chemical substances or equipment that can have an impact on people’s health or animals. If people and animals take part in the research as research objects, the author must guarantee, that all procedures and research stages meet current legislation and normative documents, and also approved by corresponding state institutions.

The submitted manuscript of the article must contain a request and confirmation from corresponding bodies as to the consent to the experiments with people and the informed consent from each person participating in experimental researches. It is always necessary to adhere to confidentiality principles concerning the persons’ right that participate in an experiment.

15. If an author detects substantial errors or inaccuracies in the article on the stage of its reviewing or after it has been published, his duty is to inform the chief editor of the journal about this without delay and make best efforts in order to publish the refutation or correction of the article. If a chief editor finds out from the third party that the published paper contains a considerable error, it is the author’s duty to refute without delay or correct the article, or to submit to the chief editor the proofs of correctness of the published paper.

16. Submitting the manuscript of the article, the authors must report to the editor any information about the considerable conflicts of interests that can influence the results of the research or their interpretation. The conflict of interests may include, for example, consulting or financial interests of any company, existence of contract relations or ownership rights, getting of the professional fees, making expert conclusions, receiving grants, and registration of patents. Authors must guarantee the absence of circumstances that would influence the publication of information contained in the submitted manuscript. All financial sources of the project must be disclosed. All potential conflicts of interests must be found on early stages.

17. The authors must indicate the establishment where the article was written, within what scientific programs the research was carried out, all financial sources of the project, patent requests/registration in the submitted to the editorial board manuscript.

Ethical Responsibilities of Reviewers

The reviewers of "Printing and Publishing" journal of scientific papers can be both members of the editorial board, and external specialists of the corresponding scientific field.

A reviewer carries out scientific examination of the authorial materials that is why his duty is an objective estimation of the quality of the submitted article and determination of level of its relevance to scientific, literal and ethical standards. The reviewer’s actions must have unbiased manner that expects the observance of the following principles:

1. The work of a reviewer implies to help the chief editor and the editorial board to make decision as to the acceptance of the article for printing or rejection in publication, and cooperation through the editorial board with an author helps the letter to improve the manuscript of the article.

2. A reviewer that perceives himself not to be skilled enough to analyse the researches in the submitted manuscript must inform the chief editor and return the manuscript to the editorial board immediately.

3. A reviewer that is short of time to review the manuscript must inform the chief editor (the editorial board) about this with a request to exclude him from the reviewing process of the manuscript.

4. A manuscript of the article, sent for reviewing by the editorial board of the journal, is a confidential document. This manuscript cannot be given for reading to any other third parties. Discussion or consultations concerning the manuscript given for a review can be allowed only by the chief editor. Violation of confidentiality is possible only in case of the statement about inaccuracy or falsification of materials.

5. A reviewer must be objective. A reviewer must give objective and well-reasoned evaluation of the manuscript quality. A reviewer must clearly and unambiguously formulate his comments, recommendations and judgements in order the editors and authors can interpret and work them out clearly. Personal criticism of the authors is unacceptable. A reviewer must respect intellectual independence of the authors.

6. A reviewer must carry out the objective analysis of references to the authentic sources in the manuscript submitted for a review. A reviewer must point out to meaningful scientific literary sources omitted in the manuscript. Any scientific data or judgements discovered by other authors earlier, must contain reference to the publication of this author (authors). A reviewer must give an objective opinion as to adequacy of quoting of the published articles on this theme in literature. A reviewer must draw attention of the editorial board of the journal in case of partial or substantial likeness between the submitted manuscript and any other published article, any manuscript, simultaneously submitted to another journal or any other work that a reviewer personally knows about.

7. A reviewer has no right to disclose or use any unpublished information contained in the manuscript for the personal benefit, or conduct of own researches, unless s/he has the author’s permission. Manuscripts are the authors’ private property and belong to information that is not subject of the disclosure.

8. Reviewers are forbidden to make copies of the articles for private use.

9. In case if a reviewer suspects plagiarism or falsification of data, he must immediately inform the chief editor or the editorial board about this with a suggestion of additional verification of the manuscript and to take corresponding measures.

10. A reviewer cannot participate in the reviewing of the manuscript in case of conflict of interests, in particular, caused by competition, collaboration or other relations with any authors or establishments related to that article. A reviewer cannot be an author or a co-author of the paper submitted for reviewing. A reviewer cannot be a supervisor of the candidates seeking the scientific degrees and/or a manager of the department the author works in. A reviewer cannot review the manuscript, if he has personal or professional relations with an author or a co-author, and if these relations can have an impact on the evaluation of the manuscript. A reviewer cannot participate in the evaluation of manuscripts if they are personally interested in their publication. The manuscript submitted for reviewing cannot be closely related to current or published reviewer’s paper.

A reviewer does not accept manuscripts for reviewing in cases of conflict of interests and must return a manuscript without a review immediately, indicating the conflict of interests.

Ethical Responsibilities of Publishers

A publisher is responsible for organization of editorial and publishing processes during the edition of the journal of scientific papers "Printing and Publishing", adhering to basic principles:

1. A publisher must ensure the best possible organization of editorial and publishing processes during the edition of the journal of scientific papers "Printing and Publishing".

2. A publisher must ensure creation and implementation of terms, procedures, algorithms, that assist to implement ethical obligations of the staff of the editorial board, editorial and publishing group, authors and reviewers of the journal of scientific papers "Printing and Publishing" according to the requirements stated above.

3. To provide support to the editorial board of the journal of scientific papers "Printing and Publishing" while considering the claims against ethical aspects of the published materials of the journal. 

4. To co-operate with other journals, publishers, public professional organizations to improve the quality of the journal and the work of the editorial board.

5. The activity of the journal of scientific papers is not commercial and not aimed to receive profit.

6. A publisher must assist an editorial board in the process of forming a paradigm of ethics and quality of the journal of scientific papers that relates to the publication of corrections, explanations, refutation and apologies if necessary.

7. A publisher must assist to form the procedures of publications withdrawal that contain plagiarism and inaccurate data.

8. A publisher must introduce field standards, national and international standards as to conducting the researches, improvement of ethical recommendations and regulations of errors prevention and correction.

9. A publisher must take measures to protect intellectual property and copyright.

10. A publisher must respect the right to confidentiality and privacy of the personal information.

11. A publisher must ensure the timely edition of the journal of scientific papers.

12. A publisher must provide specialized legal support if necessary.